Environmental Factors (Chloride and Sulfate)

OVERVIEW

Environmental Factors (Chloride and Sulfate)

Chloride ion (Cl-) can be sourced from melting salt or from sea water. These ions can cause the passive layer to be destroyed. In groundwater, the reaction with magnesium sulfate (MgSO₄) can be more damaging than the reaction with chloride ions.

Magnesium sulfate reacts with tricalcium aluminate and calcium hydroxide to form tricalcium sulphoaluminate, calcium sulfate, and magnesium hydroxide. This reaction results in a low pH value in the aqueous solution which causes the calcium silicate in the cement paste and steel to decompose and release more calcium hydroxide. This calcium hydroxide will continue to react with the magnesium sulfate (as long as it is present) until the overall structure decomposes to become weak and hollow.

CONSTRAINT

Main Problem

In coastal environments with high chloride and sulfate content chemical reactions can occur. This reaction then seeps into the building structure and erodes steel and concrete, causing damage.

SOLUTION

OUR SOLUTION

  • Perform corrosion cleaning by grinding/wet blasting method for steel piles. After that, anti-rust coating was carried out using a rush converter, installation of FRP for protection and strengthening (for seawater areas using GFRP/Type E Glass and Tyfo SW), and top coating UV protection.
  • Repairing the concrete surface (injection/patching/grouting), installing FRP for protection and strengthening (for seawater areas using GFRP/Type E Glass and Tyfo SW), as well as top coating UV protection.

CERTIFICATION

OUR CERTIFICATIONS

We have worked on various infrastructure strengthening projects. With Fyfe Indonesia products, various challenges have been well overcome.

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